Anemia of Inflammation or Chronic Disease

What is anemia of inflammation? Anemia of inflammation, also called anemia of chronic disease or ACD, is a type of anemia that affects people who have conditions that cause inflammation, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer , and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anemia is a condition in which your blood has fewer red blood cells than normal. Your red blood cells…

Sickle Cell Trait & Other Hemoglobinopathies & Diabetes (For Providers)

The hemoglobin A1C (A1C) test can be unreliable for diagnosing or monitoring diabetes and prediabetes in people with inherited hemoglobin variants, also called hemoglobinopathies. Hemoglobins S and E are prevalent variants in people of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian descent. These variants interfere with some A1C tests—both laboratory and point-of-care tests. If A1C tests are…

Celiac Disease Testing (for Health Care Professionals)

Serologic tests for celiac disease provide an effective first step in identifying candidates for intestinal biopsy. If serologic or genetic tests indicate the possibility of celiac disease, a biopsy should be done promptly and before initiating any dietary changes.  Genetic tests that confirm the presence or absence of specific genes associated with celiac disease may…

Aplastic Anemia & Myelodysplastic Syndromes

What are aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)? Aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are rare and serious disorders that affect the bone marrow and blood. Bone marrow is the soft, spongelike tissue inside the bones. Bone marrow makes stem cells that develop into one of the three types of blood cells—red blood cells, white…

Risk Factors for Cancer

It is usually not possible to know exactly why one person develops cancer and another doesn’t. But research has shown that certain risk factors may increase a person’s chances of developing cancer. (There are also factors that are linked to a lower risk of cancer. These are sometimes called protective risk factors, or just protective…

Types of Cancer Treatment

There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. When you…

Cancer Treatment Scams

If you or someone you love has cancer, chances are you’re sorting through mountains of information and facing many decisions about various treatment options. And you may be curious about supposed miraculous cancer-fighting products — pills, powders, herbs, and more — that you’ve either seen advertised or heard about from family and friends. Be skeptical:…

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard medical care.  Standard medical care is medicine that is practiced by health professionals who hold an M.D. (medical doctor) or D.O. (doctor of osteopathy) degree. It is also practiced by other health professionals, such as physical therapists,…

Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment

About Off-Label Drugs Drugs can be legally sold in the U.S. only after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (also known as the FDA) has approved them. Drugs are approved after research shows they are safe and effective for a specific use. Off-label drug use refers to the practice of prescribing a drug for a…